Oak family (Fagaceae)

Oaks (Quercus spp.), chestnut (Castanea sp.), and American beech (Fagus grandifolia)

Figure 1. One of Block Island’s only oak trees.

Fagaceae specialists presumed to breed locally, mainly on chestnuts [#records, 2014–2022 unless otherwise noted]

Tischeria quercitella Clemens, 1863 [4 records, all Nathan Mott Park; known hosts of this species are oak and chestnut]

Coptotriche citrinipennella (Clemens, 1859) [10 adult records, of which 6 in Nathan Mott Park, 2 at the Scout camp; also reared from chestnut sapling in Nathan Mott Park and photographed once at Grindley property; known hosts of this species are oak and chestnut]

Phyllonorycter kearfottella (Braun, 1908) [4 records, all single location in Nathan Mott Park on three different nights; chestnut is the only known host of this species]

Neurobathra strigifinitella (Clemens, 1860) [25 records in 2018–2021 quantitative data, of which 14 in Nathan Mott Park, 5 at the Scout camp, 4 at Hunt property; photographed once at Grindley property; known hosts of this species are oak, chestnut, and beech]

Coleotechnites quercivorella (Chambers, 1872) [several records, most or all in Nathan Mott Park; records need to be checked for completeness; oak is the only known host genus of this species, but Block Island records strongly suggest chestnut is a suitable host]

Pseudotelphusa quercinigracella (Chambers, 1872) [7 records, of which 6 in Nathan Mott Park and 1 at Hunt property; species may not be known from chestnut, but Block Island records strongly suggest it is a suitable host]

Nadata gibbosa (Smith, 1797) [25+ records; larvae prefer Fagaceae but have been found on other trees; on Block Island, most records are from Nathan Mott Park and the Scout camp, suggesting the population relies at least mainly on chestnut and beech; two larvae found on chestnut in Nathan Mott Park]

Fagaceae specialists recorded on Block Island likely only as strays [#records, 2014–2022]

Figure 1. Distribution map for records of oak specialists (15 sightings of 13 species) presumed to have been strays, 2018–2022 quantitative data. Four male Heterocampa obliqua at one sheet at the Scout camp (25 July 2020) are counted as a single sighting on the assumption that all were siblings laid on the nearby oaks by a stray gravid female. A pair of Xenolechia ontariensis at the same sheet at the Scout camp (26 June 2019) may also have been siblings; they were excluded from this map inadvertently, as were the three Chionodes species listed below and Salebriaria turpidella. Additionally, six individual moths in the Chionodes formosella complex have been recorded on Block Island, five of which are part of the 2018–2022 quantitative data. It is unclear whether the specimens represent multiple species, so they are all excluded from analyses for now. All species possibly represented among these specimens are oak-feeding.

Nepticulidae: Stigmella macrocarpae (Freeman, 1967) [1]

Bucculatricidae: Bucculatrix packardella Chambers, 1873 [1]

Gracillariidae: Phyllonorycter fitchella (Clemens, 1860) [1]

Gelechiidae: Trypanisma prudens Clemens, 1860 [1]; Pubitelphusa latifasciella (Chambers, 1875) [1]; Xenolechia ontariensis Keifer, 1933 [3]; Chionodes pereyra Clarke, 1947 [1]; Chionodes sevir Hodges, 1999 [2]; Chionodes thoraceochrella (Chambers, 1872) [3]

Tortricidae: Chimoptesis pennsylvaniana (Kearfott, 1907) [1]; Acleris semipurpurana (Kearfott, 1905) [2]; Argyrotaenia quercifoliana (Fitch, 1858) [2]; Archips semiferanus (Walker, 1863) [2]

Pyralidae: Oneida lunulalis (Hulst, 1887) [1]; Salebriaria turpidella (Ragonot, 1888) [1]; Salebriaria engeli (Dyar, 1906) [1]

Geometridae: Besma quercivoraria (Guenée, [1858]) [3]

Noctuoidea: Peridea angulosa (Smith, 1797) [1]; Macrurocampa marthesia (Cramer, 1780) [1]; Heterocampa obliqua Packard, 1864 [4 — all same night near two oaks in Scout camp, potentially offspring of stray gravid female]; Catocala dejecta Strecker, 1880 [1]; Catocala ilia (Cramer, 1775) [2]; Catocala connubialis Guenée, 1852 [1]; Catocala lineella Grote, 1872 [1]; Acronicta modica (Walker, 1856) [0 — unconfirmed, before 1996]; Acronicta lithospila (Grote, 1874) [1]; Cosmia calami (Harvey, 1876) [4]

Status unclear [#records, 2014–2022]

Blastobasis glandulella (Riley, 1871) [13 records, suggesting species may breed locally utilizing undocumented host; the species is abundant regionally]

Sereda tautana (Clemens, 1865) [only one record; probably a stray but possibly breeding on pair of oaks at Scout camp and otherwise missed due to early flight]

Pococera expandens (Walker, 1863) [several records on Block Island without geographic association with Fagaceae, and this is not an especially common species regionally; may have additional host]

Cyclophora packardi (Prout, 1936) [9 records: 2 at the Scout camp, 3 at Hunt property, 2 at Rohn property possibly misidentified C. myrtaria, 2 at Grindley property; surely breeds on island, likely utilizing host other than oak]

Hyperstrotia pervertens (Barnes & McDunnough, 1918) [4 records on Block Island without geographic association with Fagaceae; may have additional host]

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