Choristoneura fumiferana

620303.00 — 3638 — Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens, 1865) — Spruce Budworm Moth

Larval Host(s)

Presumed main host
on Block Island:

Known hosts:
Pinus thunbergii



A major defoliater of coniferous boreal forests, especially in Canada, with cyclical populations.


Part of a very difficult complex of several species, of which only one other, C. pinus, an orange species, occurs in the region; the remainder are limited to the West.


  • Species Page at Moth Photographers Group
  • Barcode of Life (BOLD) - Caution: Some specimens shown may not be sequenced. DNA barcode provides evidence of relatedness not proof of identification.
  • Brunet, B.M., G.S. Blackburn, K. Muirhead, L.M. Lumley, B. Boyle, R.C. Lévesque, M. Cusson, F.A.H. Sperling, 2017. Two's company, three's a crowd: new insights on spruce budworm species boundaries using genotyping-by-sequencing in an integrative species assessment (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Systematic Entomology, 42: 317-328.
  • Dang, P.T., 1992. Morphological study of male genitalia with phylogenetic inference of Choristoneura Lederer (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). The Canadian Entomologist, 124(1): 7-48.
  • Lumley L.M., E. Pouliot, J. Laroche, et al. , 2020. Continent-wide population genomic structure and phylogeography of North America's most destructive conifer defoliator, the spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana). Ecology and Evolution, 10: 914-927.
  • Lumley, L.M. & F.H. Sperling, 2010. Integrating morphology and mitochondrial DNA for species delimitation within the spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) cryptic species complex (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Systemic Entomology, 35(3): 416-428.
  • Lumley, L.M. & F.H. Sperling, 2011. Utility of microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA for species delimitation in the spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) species complex (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 58(2): 232-243.
  • Species Page at BugGuide
  • Species Page at E. H. Strickland Museum